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- The distance between two points (x
_{1}, y_{1}, z_{1}) and (x_{2}, y_{2}, z_{2}) is given by the Pythagorean Theorem:r = √ ((x

_{2}- x_{1})^{2}+ (y_{2}- y_{1})^{2}+ (z_{2}- z_{1})^{2}) - circumference (circle) = 2 π r

area (circle) = π r^{2}

surface area (sphere) = 4 π r^{2}

volume (sphere) = 4/3 π r^{3}

surface area (cylinder) = 2 π r^{2}+ 2 π r h

volume (cylinder) = π r^{2}h - For the right triangle:

cos θ = a / h

tan θ = o / a - sin (a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b

cos (a + b) = cos a cos b - sin a sin b

cos^{2}θ + sin^{2}θ = 1

1 / cos^{2}θ = 1 + tan^{2}θ - When two parallel lines are crossed by a transverse line, the alternate interior angles are equal:

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©2010, Kenneth R. Koehler. All Rights Reserved. This document may be freely reproduced provided that this copyright notice is included.