A Scrapbook of Bird Identifications (America and Canada)

feeder birds Woodpeckers small birds Flycatchers Owls divers wetland birds
Sparrows tree-climbers Warblers larger birds field birds plunge-divers swimmers
Wrens Hummingbirds Vireos Nightjars game birds shorebirds Gulls
ground foragers Swallows medium-size birds Raptors dabblers waders Skimmers

feeder birds

American Goldfinch - Black-capped Chickadee -
female, in winter plumage male and female male, in winter plumage

Black-crested Titmouse - Carolina Chickadee - House Finch -

House Sparrow -
male female male male, in breeding plumage

Pine Siskin - Tufted Titmouse -


American Tree Sparrow - bicolored billBlack-throated Sparrow - Chipping Sparrow - dark lores and eyelineClay-colored Sparrow - gray nape

Field Sparrow - pink bill, white eyeringFox Sparrow - Lark Bunting -
male, in breeding plumage female

Lincolns Sparrow - sharp streaking, fine throat streaks, buffy malarsSavannah Sparrow - sharp streaking, white malars, pale crown, yellowish loresSong Sparrow - course streaking, breast spot

Swamp Sparrow - blurred streaks, plain throatVesper Sparrow - white eyeringWhite-crowned Sparrow -

White-throated Sparrow -
juvenile juvenile


Cactus Wren - Carolina Wren - House Wren -

Marsh Wren - streaked back, brown crown

ground foragers

Canyon Towhee - Dark-eyed Junco - Oregon variety with black hoodEastern Towhee -
male male

Eurasian Collared Dove - Greater Roadrunner -
male and female female

Mourning Dove - Rock Pigeon - White-winged Dove -


Acorn Woodpecker - Downy Woodpecker - Golden-fronted Woodpecker -
male female male

Hairy Woodpecker - bill almost as long as headNorthern Flicker - Pileated Woodpecker -
female male female

Red-bellied Woodpecker - Red-breasted Sapsucker -
male female male

Red-cockaded Woodpecker - Red-headed Woodpecker - Yellow-bellied Sapsucker -
male female


Brown-headed Nuthatch - Brown Creeper - Red-breasted Nuthatch -

White-breasted Nuthatch -


Annas Hummingbird - Ruby-throated Hummingbird -
male female



Bank Swallow - brown, white below, dark breastbandBarn Swallow - orange below, long tail, dark napeCliff Swallow - pale below, short square tail, pale nape, buffy rump

Northern Rough-winged Swallow - drab, short square tailPurple Martin - Tree Swallow -
male female

small birds

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher - Dickcissel - Eastern Bluebird -
male, in breeding plumage male

Golden-crowned Kinglet - Indigo Bunting -
female female, in breeding plumage

Nanday Parakeet - Painted Bunting -
male, in first spring plumage male, in breeding plumage male

Ruby-crowned Kinglet -
male female female male


American Redstart - female pale with gray head, yellow on sides and base of tailBay-breasted Warbler -
female female male female, in breeding plumage

Black And White Warbler - Blackburnian Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female male, in breeding plumage female

Black-throated Blue Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female male female, in first year plumage

Black-throated Green Warbler - Canada Warbler - Cape May Warbler -
female male male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Chestnut-sided Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Common Yellowthroat - Connecticut Warbler - gray head and throat, white eyering
male male female

Magnolia Warbler - Mourning Warbler - dark loresNashville Warbler - gray head, yellow throat
male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Northern Parula - Palm Warbler -
female, in first year plumage female male

Pine Warbler - dark cheeks, yellow eyeringPrairie Warbler - dark collar spot, dark arc under eye
breeding plumage

Prothonotary Warbler - Tennessee Warbler - gray crown, green back, light below, eyelineWilsons Warbler - black crown
male female

Yellow-breasted Chat - Yellow-rumped Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Yellow-throated Warbler -
female male, in breeding plumage

Yellow Warbler -
female male


Blue-headed Vireo - Philadelphia Vireo - yellow throatRed-eyed Vireo - gray crown with dark border

Warbling Vireo - white throatWhite-eyed Vireo -

medium-size birds

American Robin - Baltimore Oriole -
chicks male female

Blue Grosbeak - Blue Jay - Brown-headed Cowbird -
male female male

Brown Thrasher - Cedar Waxwing - Clarks Nutcracker -

Common Grackle - European Starling - Florida Scrub Jay -
breeding plumage

Gray Catbird - Gray Jay - Hermit Thrush - rufous tail, white eyeringLoggerhead Shrike -

Mexican Jay - Northern Cardinal -
female female male

Northern Mockingbird - Orchard Oriole -
leucistic female male, in first summer plumage

Phrrhuloxia - Rose-breasted Grosbeak -
male male male male

Scarlet Tanager -
molting female female male, in breeding plumage

Scotts Oriole - Stellers Jay - Summer Tanager -
male female

male, in first spring plumage male male, in first spring plumage


Black Phoebe - Brown-crested Flycatcher - Eastern Kingbird - white tail tipEastern Phoebe - weak wingbars

Eastern Wood-pewee - clear wingbarsGreat Crested Flycatcher -

Olive-sided Flycatcher - Says Phoebe - Vermilion Flycatcher -

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher - complete eyering
male female

larger birds

American Crow - Black-billed Magpie - Boat-tailed Grackle -
female male

Common Raven - Fish Crow - thin nasal callGreat-tailed Grackle - siren-like vocals
male female

Yellow-billed Cuckoo -


Common Nighthawk - note tail pattern


American Kestral -
male female male

Bald Eagle -
juvenile juvenile juvenile

Black Vulture -

Broad-winged Hawk - Coopers Hawk - large, pale nape, rounded tail

Crested Caracara -

Merlin - smallNorthern Harrier - owl-like face, white rump
female juvenile

Osprey - large, white body

Peregrine Falcon - Red-shouldered Hawk - narrow tail bands

Red-tailed Hawk -

Swallow-tailed Kite - Turkey Vulture -


Barred Owl - Eastern Screech-owl - gray and red morphs

Great Horned Owl -
juvenile female chick male

Snowy Owl -

field birds

Bobolink - Eastern Meadowlark -
femalebreeding plumage

Red-winged Blackbird -
female female, in first summer plumage male female

Sandhill Crane -
female moltingsummer plumagewinter plumage

Whooping Crane - red malarYellow-headed Blackbird -

game birds

Ruffed Grouse - Wild Turkey -
male male male

Willow Ptarmigan -
male, in breeding plumage


American Black Duck - greenish billAmerican Wigeon -
breeding plumage

Black-bellied Whistling Duck - Blue-winged Teal -

Brant - Cackling Goose - short bill, dark breast
breeding plumage

Canada Goose - Domestic Muscovy - Gadwall - black bill with orange sides, yellow legs, white wing patch
chicks male, in breeding plumage

Garganey - Green-winged Teal - note gold patch
breeding plumage female male, in breeding plumage female

Mallard -
breeding plumage femalebreeding plumagebreeding plumage

Mottled Duck - pale neck and scalp, yellow bill, black gapeMute Swan -
breeding plumage juvenile

Northern Pintail - gray bill and legsNorthern Shoveler -
female male, in breeding plumage female

Snow Goose - dark grin patchTrumpeter Swan - brown streaks from iron in diet
breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Tundra Swan - yellow loresWood Duck -
male female

chicks male, in breeding plumage


American Coot - Anhinga -
male, in breeding plumage chicks

male female male, in breeding plumage

Black Scoter - Bufflehead -
male male and female male, in breeding plumage

Canvasback - white body, black billCommon Goldeneye -
female male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Common Loon - Common Merganser -
breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Double-crested Cormorant -

Great Cormorant - gray bill, yellow chin, white throat and bellyGreater Scaup - rounded head, long broad billHooded Merganser -
breeding plumage female male and female, in breeding plumage

Horned Grebe - red gape
female male, in breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Lesser Scaup - peaked head, narrow blue billLong-tailed Duck -
breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage male, in winter plumage female, in winter plumage

Pacific Loon - pale gray nape
female, in winter plumage malebreeding plumage

Pied-billed Grebe - Red-breasted Merganser -
breeding plumagebreeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Red-faced Cormorant - light face and bill, white hip patchRedhead - gray body, blue bill with black tip
male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Red-necked Grebe - large yellow bill, white ear patchRed-throated Loon - smaller than common, thinner bill, white face and throatRing-necked Duck - light spur on front flank
female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Ruddy Duck - tail often raised
male, in breeding plumage female male and female

Surf Scoter - Western Grebe - dark except white throat, olive bill, dark around eye
male female male


Belted Kingfisher -
female male

Brown Pelican -
juvenile juvenile

Caspian Tern - red bill with dark tip, black cap and legs
breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Common Tern - orange legsForsters Tern -
breeding plumage juvenile

Northern Gannet - Royal Tern - heavy orange bill, black legs
breeding plumage

Sandwich Tern - black bill with pale tip, black legs


American Avocet - American Oystercatcher - American Woodcock -

Black-bellied Plover - short heavy bill
male, in breeding plumage juvenile compare dunlin on left

Black-necked Stilt - Dunlin - stocky, long drooping billGreater Yellowlegs - bill slightly upturned
breeding plumage

Killdeer - double breast bandLeast Sandpiper - slightly down-turned bill, greenish legs
breeding plumage

Lesser Yellowlegs - straight bill a little longer than headLong-billed Dowitcher - greenish legs, more often in freshwaterMarbled Godwit -

Piping Plover - very pale with dark eye, orange legsRed Knot -
female male

Ruddy Turnstone - Sanderling -
compare sanderling female, in breeding plumage

Semipalmated Plover - single breast band
male, in breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Semipalmated Sandpiper - shorter straighter bill than least, dark legsShort-billed Dowitcher - greenish legs, barred flanks, more often in saltwater
breeding plumage compare black-bellied plovers compare dunlin

Solitary Sandpiper - greenish legs, white eyeringSpotted Sandpiper - yellowish legs
breeding plumage

Willet - gray legs, long bill with dark endWilsons Phalarope -
breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Wilsons Snipe - striped back and head, barred flanks, orange tail


Black-crowned Night Heron - Cattle Egret - all white except yellow bill and lores, dark legsGlossy Ibis - brownish bill, dark iris
breeding plumage

Great Blue Heron -
breeding plumage juvenile

Great Egret - yellow bill, black legs and feet

Great White Heron - pale legsGreen Heron -
breeding plumage compare great blue

Little Blue Heron -
juvenile juvenile

breeding plumage molting compare white ibis

Reddish Egret - gray legsRoseate Spoonbill -
breeding plumage

Snowy Egret - black bill, yellow lores and feet
compare great egretbreeding plumagebreeding plumage

Tricolored Heron -

White-faced Ibis - red iris, pink lores, gray bill
breeding plumage

White Ibis -

Wood Stork -
molting juvenile

Yellow-crowned Night Heron -

wetland birds

Clapper Rail - pale throat, mostly white undertailCommon Gallinule -

Limpkin - Purple Gallinule -


American White Pelican -
compare snowy egret


Black-legged Kittiwake -
juvenile juvenilebreeding plumage

Bonapartes Gull - black bill
breeding plumagebreeding plumage compare ring-billed

Glaucous-winged Gull - dark iris, no black on wingsGreat Black-backed Gull -
breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Herring Gull - pale iris, pink legs, indefinite black wing tips
compare ring-bill on right juvenile juvenile

Laughing Gull - red bill, black wing tips, dark legs
compare ring-billed on rightbreeding plumage

breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Mew Gull - dark eye, plain yellow bill, yellow legsRing-billed Gull - black ring on yellow bill, yellow legs, white spot on black wing tips
juvenile juvenile

juvenilebreeding plumage juvenile

compare herring on left


Black Skimmer -
compare laughing gull juvenile juvenile

©2018, Kenneth R. Koehler. All Rights Reserved.