A Scrapbook of Bird Identifications (America and Canada)

feeder birds Woodpeckers small birds Flycatchers Owls divers wetland birds
Sparrows tree-climbers Warblers larger birds field birds plunge-divers swimmers
Wrens Hummingbirds Vireos Nightjars game birds shorebirds Gulls
ground foragers Swallows medium-size birds Raptors dabblers waders Skimmers

feeder birds

American Goldfinch - Black-capped Chickadee -
female, in winter plumage male and female male, in winter plumage

Carolina Chickadee - House Finch -
female male

House Sparrow - Pine Siskin - Tufted Titmouse -
male female


American Tree Sparrow - bicolored billChipping Sparrow - dark lores and eyelineField Sparrow - pink bill, white eyeringFox Sparrow -

Lincolns Sparrow - sharp streaking, fine throat streaks, buffy malarsSavannah Sparrow - sharp streaking, white malars, pale crown, yellowish loresSong Sparrow - course streaking, breast spot

Swamp Sparrow - blurred streaks, plain throatWhite-crowned Sparrow -

White-throated Sparrow -


Carolina Wren - House Wren - Marsh Wren - streaked back, brown crown

ground foragers

Dark-eyed Junco - Oregon variety with black hoodEastern Towhee -
male male male and female

Greater Roadrunner - Mourning Dove -


Downy Woodpecker - Hairy Woodpecker - bill almost as long as headNorthern Flicker -
male female female

Pileated Woodpecker - Red-bellied Woodpecker -
male female male female

Red-breasted Sapsucker - Red-cockaded Woodpecker - Red-headed Woodpecker -

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker -
male female


Brown-headed Nuthatch - Brown Creeper - Red-breasted Nuthatch -

White-breasted Nuthatch -


Annas Hummingbird - Ruby-throated Hummingbird -
male female



Bank Swallow - brown, white below, dark breastbandBarn Swallow - orange below, long tail, dark napeCliff Swallow - pale below, short square tail, pale nape, buffy rumpNorthern Rough-winged Swallow - drab, short square tail

Purple Martin - Tree Swallow -
male female

small birds

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher - Dickcissel - Eastern Bluebird -
male, in breeding plumage male

Golden-crowned Kinglet - Indigo Bunting -
female female, in breeding plumage

Painted Bunting -
male, in first spring plumage male, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage male

Ruby-crowned Kinglet -
female male


American Redstart - female pale with gray head, yellow on sides and base of tailBay-breasted Warbler -
female female male female, in breeding plumage

Black And White Warbler - Blackburnian Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female male, in breeding plumage female

Black-throated Blue Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female male female, in first year plumage

Black-throated Green Warbler - Canada Warbler - Cape May Warbler -
female male male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Chestnut-sided Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage female female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Common Yellowthroat - Connecticut Warbler - gray head and throat, white eyering
male male female

Magnolia Warbler - Mourning Warbler - dark loresNashville Warbler - gray head, yellow throat
male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Northern Parula - Palm Warbler -
female, in first year plumage female male

Pine Warbler - dark cheeks, yellow eyeringPrairie Warbler - dark collar spot, dark arc under eye
breeding plumage

Prothonotary Warbler - Tennessee Warbler - gray crown, green back, light below, eyelineWilsons Warbler - black crown
male female

Yellow-rumped Warbler -
male, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Yellow-throated Warbler - Yellow Warbler -
female female male


Blue-headed Vireo - Philadelphia Vireo - yellow throatRed-eyed Vireo - gray crown with dark border

Warbling Vireo - white throatWhite-eyed Vireo -

medium-size birds

American Robin - Baltimore Oriole - Blue Grosbeak -
male female male

Blue Jay - Brown-headed Cowbird -
female female

Brown Thrasher - Cedar Waxwing - Clarks Nutcracker - Common Grackle -

European Starling - Florida Scrub Jay - Gray Catbird -
breeding plumage

Gray Jay - Hermit Thrush - rufous tail, white eyeringLoggerhead Shrike - Northern Cardinal -

Northern Mockingbird - Orchard Oriole -
female male male, in first summer plumage

Rose-breasted Grosbeak -
male male male molting

Scarlet Tanager - Stellers Jay -
female female male, in breeding plumage

Summer Tanager -
male male


Eastern Kingbird - white tail tipEastern Phoebe - weak wingbarsEastern Wood-pewee - clear wingbars

Great Crested Flycatcher - Olive-sided Flycatcher - Yellow-bellied Flycatcher - complete eyering

larger birds

American Crow - Black-billed Magpie - Boat-tailed Grackle -
female male

Common Raven - Fish Crow - thin nasal callYellow-billed Cuckoo -


Common Nighthawk - note tail pattern


American Kestral - Bald Eagle -
female male


Black Vulture -

Broad-winged Hawk - Coopers Hawk - large, pale nape, rounded tail

Merlin - smallNorthern Harrier - owl-like face, white rump

Osprey - large, white body

Peregrine Falcon - Red-shouldered Hawk - narrow tail bands

Red-tailed Hawk -

Turkey Vulture -


Barred Owl - Eastern Screech-owl - gray and red morphs

Great Horned Owl - Snowy Owl -
juvenile female male

field birds

Bobolink - Eastern Meadowlark -
femalebreeding plumage

Red-winged Blackbird -
female female, in first summer plumage male female

Sandhill Crane -
female moltingsummer plumagewinter plumage

Whooping Crane - red malarYellow-headed Blackbird -

game birds

Ruffed Grouse - Wild Turkey -
male male male

Willow Ptarmigan -
male, in breeding plumage


American Black Duck - greenish billAmerican Wigeon -
breeding plumage

Blue-winged Teal - Brant -
female malebreeding plumage

Cackling Goose - short bill, dark breastCanada Goose -
with chicks

Domestic Muscovy - Gadwall - black bill with orange sides, yellow legs, white wing patch
male, in breeding plumagebreeding plumage female

Garganey - Green-winged Teal - note gold patchMallard -
male, in breeding plumage femalebreeding plumage female

breeding plumagebreeding plumagebreeding plumage

Mute Swan - Northern Pintail - gray bill and legs
juvenile female male, in breeding plumage

Northern Shoveler - Snow Goose - dark grin patch
femalebreeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Trumpeter Swan - brown streaks from iron in dietTundra Swan - yellow loresWood Duck -

female male, in breeding plumage


American Coot - Anhinga -
male, in breeding plumage with chicks male

female male, in breeding plumage female male

Black Scoter - Bufflehead -
male and female male, in breeding plumage female

Canvasback - white body, black billCommon Goldeneye - Common Loon -
male, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Double-crested Cormorant -
breeding plumagejuvenile

Great Cormorant - gray bill, yellow chin, white throat and bellyGreater Scaup - rounded head, long broad bill
breeding plumage

Hooded Merganser -
female male and female, in breeding plumage female male, in breeding plumage

Horned Grebe - red gapeLesser Scaup - peaked head, narrow blue billLong-tailed Duck -
breeding plumagebreeding plumage male, in winter plumage

female, in winter plumage female, in winter plumage male

Pacific Loon - pale gray napePied-billed Grebe - Red-breasted Merganser -
breeding plumagebreeding plumage female, in breeding plumage

Red-faced Cormorant - light face and bill, white hip patchRedhead - gray body, blue bill with black tip
breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Red-throated Loon - smaller than common, thinner bill, white face and throatRing-necked Duck - light spur on front flank
female, in breeding plumage female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Ruddy Duck - tail often raisedSurf Scoter -
female male and female male

Western Grebe - dark except white throat, olive bill, dark around eye
female male


Belted Kingfisher -
female male

Brown Pelican -

Caspian Tern - red bill with dark tip, black cap and legs
breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Common Tern - orange legsForsters Tern -
breeding plumagejuvenile

Northern Gannet - Royal Tern - heavy orange bill, black legs
breeding plumage

Sandwich Tern - black bill with pale tip, black legs


American Avocet - American Oystercatcher - American Woodcock -

Black-bellied Plover - short heavy bill
male, in breeding plumagejuvenile compare dunlin on left

Black-necked Stilt - Dunlin - stocky, long drooping billGreater Yellowlegs - bill slightly upturned
breeding plumage

Killdeer - double breast bandLeast Sandpiper - slightly down-turned bill, greenish legsLesser Yellowlegs - straight bill a little longer than head

Marbled Godwit - Piping Plover - very pale with dark eye, orange legs

Red Knot - Ruddy Turnstone -
female male compare sanderling

Sanderling -
female, in breeding plumage male, in breeding plumage

Semipalmated Plover - single breast bandSemipalmated Sandpiper - shorter straighter bill than least, dark legsShort-billed Dowitcher - greenish legs, barred flanks
breeding plumagebreeding plumage compare black-bellied plovers

Solitary Sandpiper - greenish legs, white eyeringSpotted Sandpiper - yellowish legs
compare dunlinbreeding plumage

Willet - gray legs, long bill with dark end
breeding plumage

Wilsons Phalarope - Wilsons Snipe - striped back and head, barred flanks, orange tail
male, in breeding plumage


Black-crowned Night Heron - Cattle Egret - all white except yellow bill and lores, dark legsGlossy Ibis - brownish bill, dark iris
breeding plumagebreeding plumage

Great Blue Heron -
breeding plumage

Great Egret - yellow bill, black legs and feet
juvenile with chicks

Green Heron -
breeding plumage

Little Blue Heron -
juvenilejuvenilebreeding plumage

Reddish Egret - gray legs
molting compare white ibis

Roseate Spoonbill -
breeding plumage

Snowy Egret - black bill, yellow lores and feet
compare great egretbreeding plumagebreeding plumage

Tricolored Heron -
breeding plumage

White-faced Ibis - red iris, pink lores, gray billWhite Ibis -

Wood Stork -
juvenile molting

Yellow-crowned Night Heron -

wetland birds

Clapper Rail - pale throat, mostly white undertailCommon Gallinule - Limpkin -

Purple Gallinule -


American White Pelican -
compare snowy egret


Black-legged Kittiwake -
juvenilejuvenilebreeding plumage

Bonapartes Gull - black bill
breeding plumagebreeding plumagebreeding plumage

Glaucous-winged Gull - dark iris, no black on wingsGreat Black-backed Gull -
breeding plumage compare ring-bill on rightjuvenile

Herring Gull - pale iris, pink legs, indefinite black wing tips
juvenile compare ring-billed on rightbreeding plumage

Laughing Gull - red bill, black wing tips, dark legs

Mew Gull - dark eye, plain yellow bill, yellow legs
breeding plumagebreeding plumagejuvenile

Ring-billed Gull - black ring on yellow bill, yellow legs, white spot on black wing tips
breeding plumage compare herring on left


Black Skimmer -
compare laughing gulljuvenilejuvenile

©2018, Kenneth R. Koehler. All Rights Reserved.